Overflowing Cities: The State of the World’s Toilet 2016

Without access to any system for removing human waste, almost 100 million urban dwellers have little option but to practise open defecation. The remaining 600 million people rely on toilets that do not fulfil minimum requirements of hygiene, safety or privacy – including dirty and crowded communal toilets, and rudimentary pit or bucket latrines. Communities near water may use ‘hanging’ latrines suspended over a river or lake, where human waste drops straight into the water. Streets and common areas quickly become open sewers and rubbish dumps.