How clean are schools in Pakur and Dumka?

WaterAid/Anil Cherukupalli

A baseline survey by WaterAid India on water, sanitation & hygiene assesses the ground reality in 320 schools.

WaterAid India conducted a baseline survey of 320 schools in Dumka and Pakur districts of Jharkhand to assess the water, sanitation and hygiene situation in schools. The baseline survey will help in guiding our programme implementation in 312 schools of the district for the next three years with the plan to reach out to 102 schools each year.

The baseline survey revealed that 217 schools have only one water source and 21 schools have no source of water. The Swachh Bharat, Swachh Vidyalaya guidelines lay down the norm of 40 children per toilet and separate toilets for boys and girls. In the schools surveyed for the baseline, only in 59% of schools, the boys per toilet ratio was 40 or less; the highest ratio was where 303 boys were using a single toilet. Similarly, for girls, only in 64 per cent schools, girls per toilet ratio was 40 or less; the highest ratio was 289 girls using a single toilet. On hygiene, only 21 per cent had handwashing facilities with both water and soap. Thirty per cent of the schools had atleast one teacher trained on water, sanitation and hygiene. School Management Committees (SMC) were mostly active and 95% had the committees formed. Seventy-five (235) of the SMCs had around 75% and more attendance in the meetings. Seventy-one per cent (253) schools had school committees.

The schools

Among the schools covered under the baseline survey, 52 per cent are primary schools and 43% are upper primary schools that also have primary sections. Of the 320 schools, 317 are government and three are privately managed.  The schools have 964 teachers, 68% of whom are male. Seventy-two per cent of the schools have male headmasters or principals. Four schools are girls only and one school is boy only.

Table 1: Breakup of the 320 schools covered


The schools have a total student strength of 35,000 of which 51 per cent are girls and one per cent are students with special needs.

Table 2: Breakup of the boys and girls ratio in the school


Drinking water status

Handpumps and borewells were the main source of water in most of the schools. Majority of the schools did not have any water quality systems.



Only 167 schools had functional toilets for boys as per the Swachh Bharat ratio of a toilet for 40 children. For girls only 183 schools had functional toilets as per Swachh Bharat guidelines. Seven schools had common toilets; four of these schools did not have any other toilet. In one school, the common toilet was dysfunctional.


Ninety per cent of the schools had a handwashing facility and in half of them the facilities were located near the toilet.

swachh-vidyalaya-hygieneWaste Management

In 13 schools, the septic tank was discharging into the open drain and in 25% had a drainage but at the end of drainage, it lead to stagnation near the school.


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